Howard, R.A., Moses, J.D., Vourlidas, A., Newmark, J.S., Socker, D.G., Plunkett, S.P., Korendyke, C.M., Cook, J.W., Hurley, A., Davila, J.M., Thompson, W.T., St Cyr, O.C., Mentzell, E., Mehalick, K., Lemen, J.R., Wuelser, J.P., Duncan, D.W., Tarbell, T.D., Wolfson, C.J., Moore, A., Harrison, R.A., Waltham, N.R., Lang, J., Davis, C.J., Eyles, C.J., Mapson-Menard, H., Simnett, G.M., Halain, J.P., Defise, J.M., Mazy, E., Rochus, P., Mercier, R., Ravet, M.F., Delmotte, F., Auchere, F., Delaboudiniere, J.P., Bothmer, V., Deutsch, W., Wang, D., Rich, N., Cooper, S., Stephens, V., Maahs, G., Baugh, R., McMullin, D. and Carter, T.: 2008, Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI). Space Sci. Rev. 136, 67 - 115.

Kaiser, M.L., Kucera, T.A., Davila, J.M., St. Cyr, O.C., Guhathakurta, M., Christian, E.: 2008, The STEREO mission: an introduction. Space Sci. Rev. 136, 5 - 16.

SECCHI/COR2 synoptic movies
available at the NRL SECCHI website.

Heliospheric Imager:
Möstl, C., Amila,K.,Hall,J.R. et al.:2014, Connecting Speeds, Directions and Arrival Times of 22 Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun to 1 AU, Astrophys. J

CME Massdetection:
Colaninno, R. C., & Vourlidas, A. 2009, First Determination of the True Mass of Coronal Mass Ejections: A Novel Approach to Using the Two STEREO Viewpoints, Astrophys. J., 698, 852

Bein, B. M., Temmer, M., Vourlidas, A., Veronig, A. M., & Utz, D. 2013, The Height Evolution of the "True" Coronal Mass Ejection Mass derived from STEREO COR1 and COR2 Observations, Astrophys. J., 768, 31

Vourlidas, A., Howard, R. A., Esfandiari, E., Patsourakos, S., Yashiro, S., & Michalek, G. 2010, Comprehensive Analysis of Coronal Mass Ejection Mass and Energy Properties Over a Full Solar Cycle, Astrophys. J., 722, 1522

GCS Modeling:
The Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) modeling technique for CMEs was developed by Thernisien, Vourlidas and Howard at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington D.C., USA. The following paper describe the GCS model in detail:

Thernisien, A.F.R., Howard, R.A., Vourlidas, A.: 2006, Modeling of flux rope coronal mass ejections. Astrophys. J. 652, 763 - 773.

Thernisien, A.F.R., Vourlidas, A., Howard, R.A.: 2009, Forward modeling of coronal mass ejections using STEREO/SECCHI data. Solar Phys. 256, 111 - 130.

Thernisien, A.: 2011, Implementation of the Graduated Cylindrical Shell Model for the three-dimensional reconstruction of Coronal Mass Ejections, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 194:33.

A short tutorial which introduces the usage of the modelling software is published online at:


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